Tuesday, July 28, 2020
How to Write an Informative Essay Outline During their academic career, every student has to write an informative essay or, at least, some sort of this essay family, which includes a descriptive essay, a problem-solution essay, and others. The main goal of writing this type of essay is to inform or educate the reader on a particular topic. It means that you are actually not required to convince the audience that your assertion or opinion is correct; you simply need to provide them with enough information so that your reader could fully understand what you are writing about. Sounds like an easy task? However, thatâs not the case! In fact, composing an informative essay is one of the most challenging tasks among all writing assignments students have to complete during their educational years. You need not only to strictly follow a certain essay structure but also to make your writing interesting for even those who are not familiar with your area of study. So the question is, how to succeed with such a task? Obviously, you need to create a really good informative essay outline first. Do not worry if you donât know where to start! Your Writers are here to provide you with all the required information on how to write an informative essay outline! Guide on writing an outline for informative essay Just like with any other essay type, an informative outline essay format includes three main parts: introduction, body, and conclusion. However, before to actually start writing down the main points on each of them, you need to complete several other important steps. This is where the following guide on writing an informative essay outline may come in handy! 1. Choose a topic. Since an informative essay is intended to educate your audience about a particular topic, to choose the right one is crucial. Start with brainstorming ideas. Your aim is to find something you are really interested in and have much to say about. This will greatly facilitate your task. Once you come up with the subject for your essay, you need to formulate the topic. Please note that if you want to get a high grade, your topic should be fresh and relevant. Moreover, make sure, it is neither too narrow nor too broad. Remember, you are limited in words and are expected to write only to the point without filling in the gaps with unnecessary information. 2. Conduct research. To write an effective informative essay is all about providing your reader with only accurate information, which means that you need to conduct good research. Start with your school or college library. Do not hesitate to ask a librarian to help. Keep in mind that you may use not only books but also other credible sources of information, like scientific journals, encyclopedias, government publications, and even some reliable websites. Another thing to consider is that you should take organized notes as you do research. This will help you later with citing the sources. Finally, do not waste your time on information that is not relevant to your topic â" read only those sources you can really use in writing. 3. Build a thesis statement. Building a thesis statement is one more important step in creating a good informative essay outline. After all, you cannot organize your thoughts well without the complete understanding of the main idea of your writing. Like any other academic paper, this type of essay requires a strong and clear thesis that addresses all parts of the set question. Moreover, it should offer some original insight instead of repeating other peopleâs ideas. However, the trick is that at this stage of writing, you can use a working thesis and rewrite it after your draft is complete if necessary. More free time? Better grade? Click on this button nowOrder Now 4. Structure your informative essay outline. Once you know exactly what to write about, have several credible sources on hand, and develop a sound thesis statement, you can start writing an outline for your informative essay. As it has been already written about, there are three major parts to be included: ? Introduction First of all, the introduction part of your essay should include a so-called hook intended to grab the attention of your audience and to introduce the chosen topic. This may be a shocking fact, an anecdote, interesting statistics, or a relevant to your subject quote. Further, you should provide some background information to help your reader understand why you have selected this particular topic. Finally, you should include your thesis statement. Write down the main ideas or keywords in your informative essay outline to use them later in writing. ? Body The body paragraphs should include the major facts you are going to cover in your work. Therefore, if you want them to be logically structured, you have to write down the main points in your outline. For example, if you have three main ideas supporting your thesis, you need to include, at least, one sentence for each of them. Once it is done, make sure your facts are truly accurate and can be confirmed by reliable evidence. Moreover, you also need to make sure that all of them are different and do not repeat the same idea. ? Conclusion In your last paragraph, you need to wrap up your essay and restate your thesis. Include these points in the outline for your informative essay. However, thatâs not all. A really good informative essay should encourage the reader to look for more information about the introduced topic. Think about it and write down some ideas on how to make your reader even more interested in what you are writing about. Once you complete the informative essay outline, you are ready to actually start writing your paper. Most likely, it will seem rather challenging for you at first, but if you take it all step by step, chances are you will write an effective paper able to bring you a high grade. Be sure, a good informative essay outline will greatly help you with that!
Friday, May 22, 2020
Vaccination safety and necessity has been debated for years. Vaccine supporters claim they are completely safe and necessary for everyone. People against vaccines question their safety and feel it should be a personal choice. While some vaccines are for personal safety, others are for the safety of society and should be given to the majority of people to avoid previously eradicated diseases from coming back and killing off thousands, even millions of people. Vaccinations are an asset to our healthcare and help to keep us safe from many deadly diseases, including polio, measles, tetanus and meningitis. Although most people think Edward Jenner was the first person to attempt a vaccination, this is not true. The earliest vaccinations started in the 7th century when snake venom was drank by Buddhists to try to gain immunity from snakebites. In 1796, Edward Jenner, a doctor in England, discovered he could give people immunity to smallpox by injecting them with material from cowpox lesions. Smallpox was a significant disease in most countries and killed millions of people in Europe and Mexico. Steps had already been taken to eradicate smallpox but it was Jenner who discovered using cowpox to immunize against smallpox as being the safest method. Using smallpox to create the vaccine was not safe so JennerÃ¢â¬â¢s idea helped to save many people. This was the beginning of developing vaccines to keep people safe from diseases that were capable of wiping out entire populations. ThisShow MoreRelatedVaccination Informed Parental Choice : Vaccination Essay1614 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesVaccination Ã¢â¬ ¦Informed Parental Choice The recent measles outbreak occurring at Disneyland in December 2014 became widespread news and rekindled an ongoing debate of childhood vaccination. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is the United States government agency responsible for the protection of Americans from health threats, there were 159 incidents of measles arising from this outbreak (Ã¢â¬Å"Morbidity and MortalityÃ¢â¬ 373). Considering this outbreak, it is not unexpectedRead MoreChildhood Vaccinations Should Be Mandatory Essay1607 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesdebate of childhood vaccination. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which is the United States government agency responsible for the protection of Americans from health threats, there were 159 measles incidents arising from this occurrence (Ã¢â¬Å"MeaslesÃ¢â¬ 373). Considering this outbreak, it is not unexpected that the role of vaccination would come to the forefront. The CDC is presently advo cating 29 vaccinations for children through the age of six years old (Ã¢â¬Å"2016 RecommendedRead MoreChildhood Vaccination Rights And Risks2078 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesChildhood Vaccination Rights and Risks According to the Encyclopedia of Family Health, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention declared vaccinations to be one of the top on the list of 10 great public health achievements of the 20th century. Vaccinations have been extremely successful in eliminating and containing many deadly diseases, such as smallpox and polio, by providing the public with immunizations to keep themselves healthy against these very scary and potentially fatal illnessesRead MorePublic Health Achievements Of The 20th Century2140 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages643). Vaccinations have been extremely successful in eliminating and containing many deadly diseases, such as smallpox and polio, by providing the public with immunizations to keep themselves healthy against these very scary and potentially fatal illnesses. Mandated vaccinations for children in the united states has remained a highly debated and hot topic as many argue the freedoms of these children and their parents is being compromised by the n otion of mandated immunizations and vaccinations to attendRead MoreShould We Be Vaccinated For Annual Influenza Vaccinations?3314 Words Ã |Ã 14 PagesIntroduction Vaccinations have been a topic of controversy among various populations for decades. The controversy exists around the decision to be vaccinated for certain contagious diseases or to omit receiving vaccinations for various reasons including those of medical, ethical, and religious derivation. The profession of healthcare faces a particular obstacle in regard to annual vaccinations against influenza. This review will discuss the following ethical debate: Is it ethical to mandate healthRead MoreVaccines Are Safe And One Of The Greatest Public Health Developments1789 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesFrom January 1st to April 24th of this year, 166 people from 19 different states and the District of Columbia were reported to have measles in the U.S. (Ã¢â¬Å"Measles Cases and Outbreaks, 2015). This recent outbreak has sparked a conversation in the media about whether or not parents should be required by law to immunize their children. Even though no mandatory federal vaccination law currently exis ts, all 50 states require children to be immunized before starting public school. However, all 50 statesRead MoreUnvaccinated Children: Should They Be Allowed Public Schools3722 Words Ã |Ã 15 Pageswhose parents decide against vaccination from disease, should not be allowed enrollment in the public school system in America. History of Vaccinations Vaccinations themselves began their journey in the 18th century during a cowpox and smallpox experiment by a Dr. Jenner. His experiments were extremely primal, however, and from that point on the vaccine production rate and quality rose exponentially. In 1809 the first United States law requiring vaccinations for smallpox was written afterRead MoreThe Issue Of Animal Experimentation Essay3299 Words Ã |Ã 14 Pages(Rotondi) AP Language 2 April 2015 Ã¢â¬Å"Something CoolÃ¢â¬ The issue of animal experimentation has been hotly debated in regards to many aspects of the problem, such as the rights of the animals and the beneficial results that come from animal experimentation. In the year of 1989, the United States Supreme Court ruled the first victory for pro-animal welfare in the Silver Spring Monkey case when seventeen monkeys had been held captive under inadequate living conditions, and were subject to experimentationRead MoreEnd Neglected Tropical Diseases Act2583 Words Ã |Ã 11 Pagesworld. As Representative Christopher Smith of New Jersey sponsors and defends enactment of the bill, information in regards to the relevance of Neglected Tropical Diseases in comparison to current health care concerns are reviewed. While the bill has failed in a previous Congressional Session, it is necessary to support the enactment of this and related legislature in order to not only protect the general public, but those healthcare professionals caring for individual s affected by these diseasesRead MoreLas 432 Research Paper: Gmos20901 Words Ã |Ã 84 Pagesa collaborative fashion; provide a detailed and informative report on the subject of Genetically Modified Organisms and the technology involved with it. Genetically Modified Organisms and its technology, although highly debated and a topic of discussion in recent years, has been around for decades. Within this report it details the history, and processes of this technology. A process that was once done naturally through nature and deliberate actions of farmers is now being taken to new levels with
Saturday, May 9, 2020
In Sigmund FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬Å"Civilization and its DiscontentsÃ¢â¬ , we are introduced to a new outlook in the way we view our lives due to his analysis of civilization and how it has affected our happiness. Freud uses his theory of instincts in order to explain what encourages us as well as how our behavior is all linked together and is motivated by our instincts. He explains why humans seek happiness and how it is one of the toughest things to achieve. Towards the end of his book he also gives an insight on how the individual psyche which consist of the id, ego, and super-ego leads us to feel guilt and its impact on civilization. Through his theory of instincts and the individual psyche, Freud is able to demonstrate how civilization has set limits toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The pleasure principles goal is to avoid pain, which Freud later states it is not always a good thing because the longer things follow the pleasure principle the happiness received begins to decrease and no longer has the same affect. Overall, this makes it harder for individuals to stay happy. Along with the pleasure principle, Freud states there are three main things that also make us unhappy which are our body, the external world, and our relations with others. And out of all these three, the worst comes from our relations with others, we hurt one another more than anything else on earth. Freud states, Ã¢â¬Å"happiness Ã¢â¬ ¦ is a problem of the economics of the individualÃ¢â¬â¢s libidoÃ¢â¬ libido meaning sexual desires, he demonstrates how an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s sexual desires and being able to fulfill them leads them to their happiness. At the same time, FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s use of libido can also represent a personÃ¢â¬â¢s desires and pleasures as a whole and not limiting itself to sexual pleasure. Libido connects to FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of instincts. Freud believes that our instincts influence our behavior, and our behavior is caused by our desires. Ã¢â¬Å"Satisfact ion of instinct spells happiness for usÃ¢â¬â¢ , this implies that if our desires are satisfied, our behavior is better and we will be happy. However, there seems to be a problem when it comes to FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s theory of instincts and civilization. Freud states that civilizationShow MoreRelatedIs The Human Race?868 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesetcÃ¢â¬ . Although civilization has a positive cognition, Sigmund Freud, a neurologist and initiator of the concept of psychoanalysis, acquainted civilization as being something inadequate. Thus, civilization enables the human race to feel genuine happiness by outlawing actions that come instinctively by our individual psyche. Freud argues that the human race was born inherently savage, meaning that each individual has inborn instincts that make them barbaric. In his book, Civilization and Its DiscontentsRead MorePsychoanalytic, Jungian, and Individual Psychology Theories Essay988 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesPsychoanalytic, Jungian, and Individual Psychology Theories When the word classical is used, images of things developed long ago with their traditional styles and ideas come to mind. They are perceived today as outdated and not as effective. Classical models of psychotherapy although deemed outdated, still have relevance in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s practice of understanding human behavior. Psychotherapy is a science and art that was established back in the 1800Ã¢â¬â¢s with its own style and ideas. Classical modelsRead MoreSigmund Freud, Neurologist And Founder Of Psychoanalysis,1320 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesSigmund Freud, neurologist and founder of psychoanalysis, paved the way of dream interpretation with little competition or suspicion to his discoveries. That was until the rise of his former advocate, Carl Jung, began to challenge the founders beliefs. While working together, Jung and Freud explored the human mind and jointly agreed on the separation of the conscious and unconscious. Within the unconscious and dreams there was a mutual understandi ng of the need to identify and interpret symbols.Read MoreCarl Jung and Sigmund Freud1412 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCarl Jung and Sigmund Freud Introduction Carl Jung (1875-1961) and Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) were two individuals whose theories on human personality would completely affect the way that people viewed the human mind. Carl Gustav was a practicing psychotherapist while Sigmund Freud created the discipline of psychoanalysis. The two men had seemingly identical beliefs about human behavior, but also had contrasting beliefs about concepts such as the ego, the psyche, and the state of unconsciousnessRead MoreTheories Of Personality And Psychology1382 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPSY8100 CLIFFORD THEORIES OF PERSONALITY 3 (DEBATE EXISTENCE OF THE UNCONSCIOUS) Faculty Use Only Debate on Psychoanalysis vs. Behaviorism: Freud and Skinner Moderator: Good evening, and welcome to the Northcentral University?s debate on psychanalysis versus behaviorism. My name is Nisaa Kirtman and I am from the Department of Psychology. It?s an honor to be the moderator of tonight?s debate. The topic for tonight?s debate are the contrasts betweenRead MoreOne Flew Over The Cuckoo s Nest1226 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesspectacles of Sigmund Freud, esteemed Austrian psychologist. FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s highly regarded contribution to the study of the human brain and mind opens the curtains of the books reality. Things like mental illness and depression were not well known or understood traits for a person to have in FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s lifetime, those of which have heavy representation in KeseyÃ¢â¬â¢s story. One of FreudÃ¢â¬â¢s biggest theories is the Ã¢â¬Å"idÃ¢â¬ , the Ã¢â¬Å"egoÃ¢â¬ , and the Ã¢â¬Å"superegoÃ¢â¬ . He believed that the Ã¢â¬Å"idÃ¢â¬ represents oneÃ¢â¬â¢s instincts, Ã¢â¬Å"egoÃ¢â¬ representsRead MoreThe Unconscious Mind Is Not Some Black Hole Of Unacceptable Impulses933 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"UnconsciousÃ¢â¬ ). The Unconsious is the place a large portion of the work of the psyche completes; it s the store of programmed aptitudes (, for example, riding a bicycle), the wellspring of instinct and dreams, the motor of much data handling. The unconscious mind shows the real intentions behind the mask.Freud added to a geological model of the psyche, whereby he depicted the components of the mind s structure and capacity. Freud utilized the relationship of an iceberg to portray the three levels of theRead MoreModernism Vs. Modernist Modernism1185 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesthinkers such as Karl Marx and Sigmeud Freud played important roles in this ti me. Therefore, we discussed some of their more important works in class. For instance, you cannot study Marx thought without mentioning The Communist Manifesto. Similarly, Freud cannot be mentioned without his Outline of Psychoanalysis. Marx and Freud, after World War I, began to question the rationality of mankind. The difference being Marx focused primarily on political issues and Freud on psychology. Still, both were veryRead MoreEssay about Sexual Frustration in Alfred Hitchcocks Rope2778 Words Ã |Ã 12 Pages On May 21, 1924, two highly intelligent university scholars from Chicago, Richard Loeb and Nathan Leopold, executed their highly-calculated plan for the cold-blooded murder of a distant relative of Loeb#960;s, 14-year old Bobby Franks. As students of Nietzsche#960;s philosophy, Loeb and Leopold had set out to commit the #8805;perfect murder#8804; in order to actualize the belief that they were of an elite group, superior to the common man, to whom the standard moral code did not applyRead MoreMarx, Mill And Freud s Critique Of Political Economy And The Communist Manifesto Essay1133 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagessometimes merely implicit) notions of freedom and unfreedom we find in the texts we have read by Marx, Mill and Freud. Use the esoteric traditions we have examined thus far (from the Book of Job to Plato) as a comparative yardstick, or point of reference, but without letting them take over the foreground in your paper -- the latter should be reserved for these three figures. Karl Marx, Sigmund Freud, and John Stuart Mill are three authors who tackle the topic of freedom in unique ways, but their messages
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Death, the inevitable aspect of life. Many think that death is a portal to another realm, others think that it is the end of all life and existence. Me, on the other hand, like to think of death as a motivation factor. We will write a custom essay sample on History About Death or any similar topic only for you Order Now A reason to keep pushing and moving on, a reason to stay healthy, a reason to correct yourself. It may sound weird, but when you hear of people dying from new things, doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t it give you a sense of awareness about the world that you live in. If someone dies from a staying on the phone for long periods of time, wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t you measure the amount of time that you spend conversing tit friends? Death is powerful, death may be the only thing on earth that can change the earth. The power of death is remarkable, it is the only thing that you have no choice in, if itÃ¢â¬â¢s your time, then itÃ¢â¬â¢s your time, no re-runs or asking for second chances, youÃ¢â¬â¢re gone, no questions asked. Death is the hardest when it hits the ones that you love and adore. When death hits those close to you, you do not understand, you attempt to deny it and you get unsettling rage within yourself not understanding why you couldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be with that loved one. On the other hand, if youÃ¢â¬â¢re a more mature individual, then when a loved one dies, you accept the fate of the passing, you donÃ¢â¬â¢t dwell on the fact that they are dead, but you dwell on the life that they lived, and think about what they would want you to do in their memory. If you accept death in that manner, you will use it as a motivation factor. A factor that when you feel like giving up, you wonÃ¢â¬â¢t because in your head you hear the voice of your deceased loved one telling you to not stop. Death is a major factor in the progress of society. If it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for the deaths of any legends and idols, our world wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have progressed to the point that it has. America gained its independence in a war, then slavery was abolished because of a war, and Germany, Italy, and Japan could not control the world as they desired because of English, American, and Russian soldiers putting their lives on the line during World War 2. If it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for 9/1 1 AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s National Defense wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be as strict and powerful as it is today. If it wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t for people passing away from cancer and StudÃ¢â¬â¢s, scientist and doctors wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have founds cures for future interactions with he diseases. Because no one wants to die, it promotes everyone to do whatever they can to stay alive longer, thus promoting the progress of our world. The most difficult interaction that I had with death is when I was in 8th grade and my aunt passed away. Her passing made me understand that death is real and that anyone can die. Everyone has those role models in their lives that seem to live forever, and when they die, your heart is torn apart and it takes time to rebuild it. My aunt was so loving. She had charisma, love, and was very friendly to everyone she came in contact with. She was my grandfatherÃ¢â¬â¢s sister, and she was like a grandmother to me, she spoiled me, and did everything for me, and when she passed it tore a piece of me out of my body. I went into a dark vibe, I cut myself from society and I had to take time to find myself. One day I told myself that she wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t want me to be down and out, she would want me to work hard and stay strong for her. I love her and my love for my aunt, motivates me, and will continue to motivate me all the way though my entire life. Part of death. Many people live their lives in fear of death, but in all reality, death is unavoidable, you cannot run from it. Although there are violent and peaceful ways to die, death is still going to occur. When your heart stops and your brain ceases to flow, your dead, and you cannot take it back. That is why you should live your life to the fullest, with no regrets, and with happiness, so that when it is your turn to die, you wouldÃ¢â¬â¢ve made such an impact on the world that you live in that you donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a funeral, you have a celebration, celebrating the life that you lived, and that you have inspired and motivated someone to keep going on, working hard on the road to success. How to cite History About Death, Papers
Tuesday, April 28, 2020
Their Eyes Were Watching God How far can you see? Way, way off in the distance? But there is one sight always at the end of your vision: the horizon. Doesn't matter how far North, South, East, or West you go you are never going to get past the horizon. In the book Their Eyes Were Watching God, by Zora Neale Hurston, a lady named Janie searches for self and her place in the world. Throughout the book the concept of the horizon comes up, both figuratively and metaphorically. The horizon represents the ultimate goal, never to be reached, it contains everything we ever wanted, only some of which we can receive. The horizon symbolizes what people want and the ships on it symbolize our individual hopes and dreams. Hurston opens her book with the following paragraphs: Ships at a distance have every man's wish on board. For some they come in with the tide. For others they sale forever on the horizon, never out of sight, never landing until the Watcher turns his eyes away in resignation, his dreams mocked to death by Time. That is the life of men. Now, women forget all those things they don't want to remember, and remember everything they don't want to forget. The dream is the truth. Then they act and do things accordingly. (p.1) Here is the first instance of the horizon in the text. Although the narrator is unclear at this point there is still a definite voice talking. This voice seems to be the ultimate voice of reason and only pops up periodically in the story. The message is a little easier to discern. The ships represent hopes and dreams in the story, where the horizon is the ultimate goal, never to be reached. "That is the life of men." Men concentrate solely on the dreams themselves, never satisfied until they have accomplished whatever it is the goal which they have set out to reach. Women, however, know that it is not where you end up, but what you gain from the journey, that counts. The women can live without the fulfillment of their dreams as long as they gained something trying to get there. Another quote comes when Janie has just come to grips with the fact that marriage doesn't cause people to fall in love. Our "narrator" states, "Janie's first dream was dead, so she became a woman." (p.24) This quote goes along with the previous one. Janie became a woman, a person willing to except the loss of a dream and move on, knowing that something was gained in the process. The "horizon" claimed one of Janie's dreams, she would never be able to reach it. The horizon represents dreams, goals and hopes, but how does one reach it? Janie decides that the only way for her to reach her goals is to go out and experience life. Janie talks to Pheoby about her ideas for her future. Janie states, "Dis ain't no business proposition, and no race after property and titles. Dis is uh love game. Ah done lived Grandma's way, now Ah means tuh live mine." Janie's grandmother represents the voice of society, wanting her to be prim and proper. Janie reels from society's ideas and instead decides to go on her own instincts. Janie realizes that in order for her to reach her dreams she has to live life in her own way. At the very end of the story, Janie looks back at her life and is content. Janie states, "Here was peace. She pulled in her horizon like a great fish-net. Pulled it from around the waist of the world and draped it over her shoulder. So much of life in its meshes! She called in her soul to come and see." Janie tells us that she has reached her horizon, she was there and back and can tell us the tale. "She pulled in her horizon like a great fish-net." Janie has reached her goals in life and can carry them around in her mind. Janie gives us a message of hope, that we can achieve our goals if we so desire. So the horizon is there, at the end of sight, taunting us. Waving what we want in front of our faces and sticking it's tongue out in a grin. But this is only half the story. Hurston shows us with her story that we can achieve our goals. The horizon is there to be reached, not to be forbidden. The horizon becomes
Friday, March 20, 2020
The Relationship between Landlord and Tenant within Ireland Essay Example The Relationship between Landlord and Tenant within Ireland Essay The Relationship between Landlord and Tenant within Ireland Essay In this essay, I shall discuss the nature of the Landlord and Tenant relationship in Ireland. I will examine the aspects of a Lease from both sides of the relationship and cover the rights of the landlord and tenant under the relevant legislation. In my final chapter I will evaluate how the personal relationship between the landlord and tenant has evolved thought out time with the passing of legislation. Leases have always been a popular way to regulate the relationship between a landlord and tenant over the rights of land. Whether it be families looking for a long term stay or tudents searching for accommodation for nine months of the year. Leases are landholding arrangements in which the tenant receives a proprietary interest in the property and the exclusive possession of itl . Should the tenant have his rights infringed by the landlord, the tenant may seek court assistance to assist his rights under the lease, or since the creation of the PRTB2, which was established by the Residential Tenancies Act3, alternate dispute resolution is available. The development of leases derives from the Landlord and Tenant Law Amendment (Ireland) Act 1860 which is commonly known as Deasys Act, which will be discussed t a later stage, where it was established that the relationship between a landlord and tenant was one based on a contract. Identification of a Lease A lease is a legal agreement that results in a tenant receiving a right to exclusively possess land and a proprietary interest on it4. Leases have a variety of different legal protection under relevant statutes for both landlord and tenant so it is important not to confuse a lease with another type of legal arrangement such as a licence. It is important to distinguish the two separate concepts. A licence may be terminated without notice, without cause and also unilaterally. A lease on the other hand needs to be terminated by Deasys Act or legislation that has followed, such as breach of condition or anti-social behaviour. An interesting and famous case on this issue is that of Irish Shell BP Ltd v Coste1105. This case involved a conflict over the existence of a landlord and tenant relationship or a mere licence. There was a contract, involving land occupation, paid on a periodic basis which allowed the alleged tenant to occupy the land. It was a complex case but the court held that no matter what the document passed between the two parties called their relationship, it was only what appened in reality that mattered. The petrol company argued that it was a licence and the defendant a lease. By the decision the Irish Courts indicated they would remain in favour of the practical relationship presented before them rather than the relationship detailed in the contract. The Irish Courts prefer to make their decisions based on four headings6: 1 . Construction of the agreement 2. Intension ot the parties as interred trom their words and actions 3. Exclusive possession on the part of the tenant 4. The payment of rent Construction of the Agreement As a result of the courts commitment to perusing the true nature of the relationship between the parties, the decision as to whether or not a lease exists will essentially be a matter of construction and a court is empowered to treat that which is called a licence as a lease where appropriate7 . Therefore while the parties will place a label upon their relationship, be it a lease of a licence, it will not automatically result in the court finding that said relationship is in fact a lease or a licence. The placing of the label on the relationship merely discloses prima facie evidence of the intension of he parties. Where there is no written agreement between the parties the court will engage in construction of their words and conduct8. Intension of the Parties While all contracts have the prerequisite of the parties intension to create a legal relationship, in the contract of a lease, the courts are concerned with an intension to create a specific type of legal relations, for example landlord and tenant. The courts will try to assess whether, in its everyday operation , the relationship between the parties is more akin to a lease than a licence9. However, as we have seen the courts re willing to discard such labels if they find the actual operation of the relationship to contradict the label. This was reiterated by the Supreme Court in Gatien Motor Company v Continental Oil Company of Ireland Ltd10. Exclusive Possession A key factor of the landholding relationship is whether or not the holder of the land has been give exclusive possession of the property. Exclusive possession is essential to the existence of a lease, but it is not determinative of a lease11. In other words a lease is useless without exclusive possession but on the other hand exclusive ossession does not void a licence agreement between parties either. When dealing with landlord and tenant, the term, not only gives the tenant the capacity to use and enjoy the land but also to exclude the landlord or anyone else from the property if he so wishes. The English case of Street v Mountford12 is an important case in this jurisdiction. Here, the House of Lords held that, apart from in exceptional circumstances, where residential accommodation is offered and accepted with exclusive possession for a term at rent, theresult is tenancy thus placing exclusive possession at the heart of the assessment. The Street case was decided in relation to residential accommodation but the latter case of London Associated Investment Trust Plc. v Carlow13 extended it to commercial properties. Payment of Rent It is stated in s. of Deasys Act that the payment of rent is a characteristics of a lease but it does not however, make it clear if rent is a requirement of a lease. There is a certain authority from both Irish English Jurisdictions that a gratuitous lease is accepta 4 For the purposes ot the Irish Courts it was stated by Kenny J, dissenting in Costellol 5 that rent is essential for the creation of the relationship of landlord nd tenant. Formation of a lease The general conditions for the formation of a lease can be found in s. of DeasVs Act 1860. S. 4 states: every lease or contract with respect to lands whereby the relation of landlord and tenant is intended to be created for any freehold estate or interest, or for any definite period of time not being from year to year or any lesser period, shall be by deed executed, or in writing signed by the landlord or his agent thereunto authorised in writing Along with section four, landlord and tenant relationships can be created in law by means of assignment16, sub-lease17, implication18 and equityl 9. Termination of a lease A common form of termination of a lease comes in expiry, this occurs when the tenancy id for a fixed term and upon reaching the end of that time period the landlord and tenant relationship naturally comes to an end. If the tenancy is of a periodic nature or a tenancy at will a notice to quit is required, otherwise it will continue indefinitely. A notice to quit can be served by either party of the lease or by any person who has been authorised to serve such notice. In relation to agricultural land, residential tenancy20 and houses21, the notice must be in writing, although it is ommon place for notices to quit to be delivered in writing, whatever the premises involved. In general at common law, a periodic tenant should receive notice equivalent to one period of the tenancy, e. g. a weekly tenant would receive a weeks notice. However, the Residential Tenancies Act 2004 has now introduced statutory notice periods for all residential leases22. For example, under the 2004 Act if the tenancy duration is under a period of six months the notice that needs to be given, by both the landlord and the tenant, is twentys of where such an action might arise would be a tenants breach of condition of the lease which may lead to the paying of compensation or the owing of rent. In order to carry out a valid forfeiture there are certain legislative requirements which need to be followed. Commonly, cases of forfeiture require the landlord to serve the tenant with what is known as a section fourteen notice24. The effect of s. 4 is to give the tenant an opportunity to consider if he wants to maintain the lease and avoid forfeiture by righting the breach that lead to the issuing of the notice. Section 14 consists of: (1) The basis (or multiple basis) of the forfeiture and, if applicable, a requirement to remedy the breach although the form of the remedy is not specified and is a matter for the tenant, and (2) a demand for reasonable compensation; and (3) a notice of termination by forfeiture for failure to remedy the breach and provide reasonable compensation within a reasonable time ot the service ot the section 1 notice. The reasonableness of the prescribed time period will be entirely dependent on the circumstances If following the serving of the notice, the breach has not been remedied or if the compensation or rent owed has not been paid then the landlord is entitled to re- enter the premises, and in the process forfeiting the lease. The re-entry can be physical or legal, but the service of the notice without re-entry is not sufficient to forfeit the lease25. Tenants can apply for relief from forfeiture; such relief could be granted either under s. 14 or by means of an equitable remedy such as an injunction26
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Creating Your Own Lesson Plan Calendar It is easy to become overwhelmed when you begin planning units of study and individual lessons for a school year. Some teachersÃ start with their first unit and continue until the year ends with the attitude that if they didnt complete all the units then thats the way life is. Others try to plan their units in advance but run into events that cause them to lose time. A lesson plan calendar can help by giving a realistic overview of what they can expect in terms of instructional time.Ã Materials Needed: Blank CalendarSchool CalendarPencil Steps for CreatingÃ a Lesson Plan Calendar Get a blank calendar and a pencil. You dont want to use pen because you will probably need to add and erase items over time.Mark off all vacation days on the calendar. I generally just draw a big X right through those days.Mark off any known testing dates. If you dont know the specific dates but you do know in which month testing will occur, write a note at the top of that month along with the approximate number of instructional days you will lose.Mark any scheduled events that will interfere with your class. Again if you are unsure of the specific dates but know the month, make a note at the top with the number of days you expect to lose. For example, if you know that Homecoming occurs in October and you will lose three days, then write three days at the top of the October page.Count up the number of days left, subtracting for days noted at the top of each month.Subtract one day each month for unexpected events. At this time, if you want, you can choose to subtract the day before va cation begins if this is typically a day that you lose. What you have left is the maximum number of instructional days you can expect for the year. You will be using this in the next step.Go through the Units of Study necessary to cover the standards for your subject and decide the number of days you think will be needed to cover each topic. You should use your text, supplementary materials, and your own ideas to come up with this. As you go through each unit, subtract the number of days required from the maximum number determined in step 7.Adjust your lessons for each unit until your result from Step 8 equals the maximum number of days.Pencil in the start and completion date for each unit on your calendar. If you notice that a unit would be split by a long vacation, then you will need to go back and readjust your units.Throughout the year, as soon as you find out a specific date or new events that will remove instructional time, go back to your calendar and readjust.